where people can shelter on their long walk down to safety in case of an emergency or fire. [17] In the 2000s, Dubai started diversifying its economy but it suffered from an economic crisis in 2007–2010, leaving large-scale projects already in construction abandoned.[18]. Y-shaped structure … 1. [111] Press reports indicated in 2006 that skilled carpenters at the site earned £4.34 a day, and labourers earned £2.84. The design is derived from Islamic architecture. Burj Khalifa can be termed as an art gallery. This was reported in a Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat study, which notes that the empty spire "could be a skyscraper on its own". [116] He estimated the total cost for the project to be about US$1.5 billion. In addition to the tower, there are some 30,000 residential homes; 9 hotels (excluding those within the tower); 19 residential towers; 7.4 acres of parkland; a huge manmade lake covering an area of 30 acres, and as is to be expected, a glittering new shopping mall. Decade of Design • Best of Category/Mixed Use Buildings from International Interior Design Association (IIDA). The concept of profitability derived from building high density developments and malls around the landmark have proven successful. Turner was the project manager on the main construction contract. ", "Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Leads Process for Art Program at Burj Dubai", "Detail: Burj Khalifa Curtain Wal (Architect Magazine)", "Armani Hotel Burj Dubai, United Arab Emirates", "Worlds first Armani Hotel to open on 18 March 2010 in Dubai", "Burj Dubai's Armani hotel to open on Mar 18", "Armani hotel opens in Dubai's Khalifa tower", "Burj Dubai to welcome residents in Feb 2010", "Burj Dubai To Welcome First Residents From February 2010 Onwards", "Escaping the Dubai Downturn: Voltas's Latest Engineering Feat", "A tall order: Burj Dubai all set to come clean", "So you think your windows are hard to keep clean? [126] The ceremony featured a display of 10,000 fireworks, light beams projected on and around the tower, and further sound, light and water effects. ", "Man dies in jump from world's tallest building", "No suicide at Burj Khalifa say Dubai Police", "Is Dubai trying to cover-up woman's death from top of world's tallest building? It contains a total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators. International Architecture Award (Mixed Use) from International Commercial Property Awards. [89][90] Turner was the project manager on the main construction contract. An additional 213 km of piping serves the fire emergency system, and 34 km supplies chilled water for the air conditioning system. However, the world's fastest single-deck elevator still belongs to Taipei 101 at 16.83 m/s (55.2 ft/s). test test Tallest existing structure: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously, Tallest structure ever built: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously, Tallest freestanding structure: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously, Tallest skyscraper to top of antenna: 829.8 m (2,722 ft) (previously the, Building with most floors: 163 (previously, World's longest travel distance elevators: 504 m (1,654 ft). Corporate offices and suites fill most of the remaining floors, except for the 122nd, 123rd, and 124th, where the At.mosphere restaurant, sky lobby and an indoor and outdoor observation deck are located, respectively. All rights reserved. The Burj Tower in Dubai was officially opened in January of this year and since then has been accessible to the public. [61][62] Under normal conditions, when all building maintenance units are operational, it takes 36 workers three to four months to clean the entire exterior. [117] With Dubai mired in debt from its huge ambitions, the government was forced to seek multibillion dollar bailouts from its oil-rich neighbor Abu Dhabi. Originally proposed as a virtual clone of the 560 m (1,837 ft) Grollo Tower proposal for Melbourne, Australia's Docklands waterfront development, the tower was redesigned by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill. GCC Technical Building Project of the Year from. [16] The tower was known as Burj Dubai ("Dubai Tower") until its official opening in January 2010. However, there were numerous complaints concerning migrant workers from South Asia who were the primary building labour force. [132] According to a BBC investigation and a Human Rights Watch report, the workers were housed in abysmal conditions, and worked long hours for low pay. ARMANI HOTEL ENTRY 3 11 3. The building had become a 30-floor highrise building from a Y-shape base structure in less than one year. Burj Dubai. Burj Khalifa. Quick View. In just 1,325 days since excavation work started in January, 2004, Burj Khalifa became the tallest free-standing structure in the world. [82] At the centre of the park is the water room, which is a series of pools and water jet fountains. 2 and Fig. The Burj's typical curtain wall panels measure 4'6" wide by 10'8" high and weigh about 800 pounds each, with wider panels near the building edges and taller ones near the top. An outdoor zero-entry swimming pool is located on the 76th floor of the tower. The success and failure of projects is related to project management. Putzmeister created a new, super high-pressure trailer concrete pump, the BSA 14000 SHP-D, for this project. 3 compare the concept, shape, and height of other well-known super-tall high rise towers. [45], In 2009 architects announced that more than 1,000 pieces of art would adorn the interiors of Burj Khalifa, while the residential lobby of Burj Khalifa would display the work of Jaume Plensa. [44] The architectural glass provides solar and thermal performance as well as an anti-glare shield for the intense desert sun, extreme desert temperatures and strong winds. International Projects Category: Outstanding Project from. In 2003, 33 test holes were drilled to study the strength of the bedrock underlying the structure. [148] On 28 September 2010 Burj Khalifa won the award for best project of the year at the Middle East Architect Awards 2010. Burj Khalifa under construction in October 2006. 2. The top structure of the Burj Khalifa was made to resemble the letter 'Y' and each of the three wings of the structure buttressed others through this central core. WATER FEATURE 7 8. RESIDENTIAL ENTRY 4. The hotel was supposed to open on 18 March 2010, but after several delays, it finally opened to the public on 27 April 2010. CHILDREN PLAY AREA 9. The building was originally named Burj Dubai but was renamed in honour of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan;[5] Abu Dhabi and the UAE government lent Dubai money to pay its debts. This 244-meter spire is widely considered vanity height since very little of its space is usable. Close Start Chat. [101][102][103][104][105], In March 2009, Mohamed Ali Alabbar, chairman of the project's developer, Emaar Properties, said office space pricing at Burj Khalifa reached US$4,000 per sq ft (over US$43,000 per m²) and the Armani Residences, also in Burj Khalifa, sold for US$3,500 per sq ft (over US$37,500 per m²). [44] The elevators have a capacity of 12 to 14 people per cabin, the fastest rising and descending at up to 10 m/s (33 ft/s) for double-deck elevators. This was the first attempt in world history to have such a … In January 2010, it was planned that Burj Khalifa would receive its first residents from February 2010. To wash the 24,348 windows, totaling 120,000 m² of glass, the building has three horizontal tracks which each holding a 1,500 kg bucket machine. The two men descended the vertical drop at a speed of up to 220 km/h (140 mph), with enough time to open their parachutes 10 seconds into the 90-second jump. The design is reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wright's vision for The Illinois, a mile-high skyscraper designed for Chicago, as well as Chicago's Lake Point Tower. Burj Khalifa is the tallest tower in the world and it’s one of the top attractions to visit in Dubai. More than just the world's tallest building Soaring 828m into the sky, the Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world and one of the greatest engineering feats of all time. The Burj Khalifa set several world records, including: There are unconfirmed reports of several planned height increases since its inception. The tower was constructed by Samsung C&T from South Korea, which also did work on the Petronas Twin Towers and Taipei 101. CTLGroup, working for Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, conducted the creep and shrinkage testing critical for the structural analysis of the building. As the tower rises from the flat desert base, there are 27 setbacks in a spiral pattern, decreasing the cross section of the tower as going upward and creating convenient outdoor terraces. Hyder Consulting was chosen to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited chosen to supervise the architecture of the project. Any significant cracks could have put the entire project in jeopardy. At 452 m (1,483 ft), it was the highest outdoor observation deck in the world when it opened. At peak cooling times, the tower's cooling is 46 MW equivalent to that provided by 13,000 short tons (26,000,000 lb; 12,000,000 kg) of melting ice in one day. 22 million man-hours it took for this structure to come alive. [150], Burj Khalifa was also the recipient of the following awards. This was reported in a Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat study, which notes that the empty spire "could be a skyscraper on its own”. This has led Dubai clerics to rule that those living above the 80th floor should wait 2 additional minutes to break their Ramadan fast, and those living above the 150th floor, 3 minutes. The building was opened in 2010 as part of a new development called Downtown Dubai. The Worlds Tallest Building – Burj Khalifa Dubai. Burj Khalifa houses breathtaking artworks of over 85 artists from across the world. [83] WET Enterprises, who also developed the Dubai Fountain, developed the park's six water features. 12 September 2007: At 555.3 m (1,822 ft), becomes the world's tallest freestanding structure, surpassing the, 7 April 2008: At 629 m (2,064 ft), surpasses the. 21 September 2004: Emaar contractors begin construction. The corporate suites and offices were also supposed to open from March onwards, yet the hotel and observation deck remained the only parts of the building which were open in April 2010. The Y-shaped tripartite floor geometry is designed to optimize residential and hotel space. Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc. By Michael Cannell 2 minute Read. [citation needed] It was stated that this change did not add any floors, which fit with Smith's attempts to make the crown more slender. The triangular shape of the building can be considered as a direct descendant of Burj Khalifa, particularly, it also uses the buttress core as its major structural stability system. The Burj Khalifa's water system supplies an average of 946,000 L of water per day through 100 km of pipes. The Burj Khalifa’s construction began in 2004, with the exteriors completed in 2009. In its early planning, Burj Khalifa was intended to be entirely residential.[33]. [58] Water is collected via a condensate collection system and is used to irrigate the nearby park. Burj Khalifa was designed by Adrian Smith, of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, whose firm designed the Willis Tower and One World Trade Center. Cooler concrete cures more evenly and is therefore less likely to set too quickly and crack. [88] Samsung C&T built the tower in a joint venture with BESIX from Belgium and Arabtec from the UAE. [41] Hyder Consulting's role was to supervise construction, certify the architect's design, and be the engineer and architect of record to the UAE authorities. In May 2008, Hervé Le Gallou and David McDonnell, dressed as engineers, entered Burj Khalifa (around 650 metres (2,130 ft) at the time), and jumped off a balcony situated several floors below the 160th floor. Structural System Material The tower superstructure of Burj Khalifa is designed as an all reinforced concrete building with high performance concrete from the foundation level to level 156, and is topped with a structural steel braced frame from level 156 to the highest point of the tower. The Burj Khalifa is twice the height of New York's Empire State Building and three times as tall as the Eiffel Tower in Paris. The Burj’s record may be beaten by a Middle Eastern rival in the not-too-distant future. [40] NORR's role was the supervision of all architectural components including on-site supervision during construction and design of a 6-story addition to the office annex building for architectural documentation. SERVICE YARD 1 11. [21] As the tower rises from the flat desert base, there are 27 setbacks in a spiral pattern, decreasing the cross section of the tower as going upward and creating convenient outdoor terraces. The cladding system consists of 142,000 m² of more than 26,000 reflective glass panels and aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels with vertical tubular fins. The central pinnacle pipe weighs 350 tonnes (390 short tons; 340 long tons) and has a height of 200 m. The spire also houses communications equipment. Decade of Design, Presidential Commendation in Corporate Space Small from. [84], On the higher floors, the sun can still be seen for several minutes after it has set at ground level. Samsung C&T built the tower in a joint venture with BESIX from Belgium and Arabtec from the UAE. [66], An outdoor observation deck, named At the Top, opened on 5 January 2010 on the 124th floor. 4 January 2010: Burj Khalifa's official launch ceremony is held and Burj Khalifa is opened. [44] This 244-metre spire is widely considered vanity height, since very little of its space is usable. [59], The air conditioning system draws air from the upper floors where the air is cooler and cleaner than on the ground. The building has 57 elevators and 8 escalators. At a certain point in the architectural and engineering process, the original Emaar developers experienced financial problems, and required more money and economic funding. Illuminated by 6,600 lights and 50 coloured projectors, it is 270 m (900 ft) long and shoots water 150 m (500 ft) into the air, accompanied by a range of classical to contemporary Arabic and other music. [citation needed] Another challenging element was the shamal which often creates sandstorms. Excellence in Structural Engineering: Most Innovative Structure from SEAOI. Construction of the project began in 2004 and the exterior of the building was completed in 2009.It is a reinforced concrete structure. [129] A Dubai coroner's report stated her body was found on the third floor of the Burj Khalifa. Structural Details of Burj Khalifa The world’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa took 6 years for its construction and was inaugurated on 4 th January 2010. The cleaning system was developed in Melbourne, Australia, by CoxGomyl, a manufacturer of building maintenance units, at a cost of A$8 million. The design is derived from the Islamic architecture of the region, such as in the Great Mosque of Samarra. More levels can be added to the building at a later date, should any other structure surpass its height; The Burj Khalifa can be seen from space; Fantastic Facts: 28,261 Glass cladding panels make up the exterior of the tower and its two annexes. [60] At peak cooling times, the tower's cooling is 46 MW (62,000 hp), equivalent to that provided by 13,000 short tons (26,000,000 lb; 12,000,000 kg) of melting ice in one day. [124] In addition to the media presence, 6,000 guests were expected. More info. When Adrian Smith was conceiving the project at SOM, he looked out his office window toward Lake Point Tower's curved three wing layout, "There's the prototype", he said. The structure of the following essay is divided into two main parts: part one is on the issue of project management, and part two is the case study example of the Burj Khalifa project. [44][99], Special mixes of concrete were made to withstand the extreme pressures of the massive building weight; as is typical with reinforced concrete construction, each batch of concrete was tested to ensure it could withstand certain pressures. NORR's role was the supervision of all architectural components including on-site supervision during construction and design of a 6-story addition to the office annex building for architectural documentation. [52] The corporate suites and offices were also supposed to open from March onwards,[53] yet the hotel and observation deck remained the only parts of the building which were open in April 2010. [35][36] Due to its tubular system, proportionally only half the amount of steel was used in the construction, compared to the Empire State Building. 124 reviews. The building has been used by several experienced BASE jumpers for authorised and unauthorised BASE jumping: On 28 March 2011, Alain "Spiderman" Robert scaled the outside of Burj Khalifa. The system provides 68,000,000 L (15,000,000 imp gal) annually. [19], Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete, weighing more than 110,000 tonnes (120,000 short tons; 110,000 long tons) were used to construct the concrete and steel foundation, which features 192 piles; each pile is 1.5 metre in diameter by 43 m in length, buried more than 50 m (164 ft) deep. According to Strabala, Burj Khalifa was designed based on the 73-floor Tower Palace Three, an all-residential building in Seoul. [17] It was renamed in honour of the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan; Abu Dhabi and the federal government of UAE lent Dubai tens of billions of US dollars so that Dubai could pay its debts – Dubai borrowed at least $80 billion for construction projects. OFFICE ENTRY 4 1 SITE PLAN “ CONCEPT AND FORM 5 • Inspiration taken from the HYMENOCALLIS flower 1. Out of 900 apartments in the tower, 825 were still empty at that time. The design is derived from Islamic architecture. [136], IN March 2006 about 2,500 workers, upset over buses that were delayed for the end of their shifts, protested and triggered a riot, damaging cars, offices, computers and construction equipment. It was difficult to create a concrete that could withstand both the thousands of tonnes bearing down on it and Persian Gulf temperatures that can reach 50 °C (122 °F). The tower's architecture and engineering were performed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill of Chicago, with Adrian Smith as chief architect, and Bill Baker as chief structural engineer. Special Recognition for Technological Advancement from International Highrise Awards. [24] The double-deck elevators are equipped with entertainment features such as LCD displays to serve visitors during their travel to the observation deck. It would be difficult to find any worldwide practices in the design of tall buildings that have not been directly or indirectly influenced by his work. These setbacks are arranged and aligned in a way that minimizes vibration wind loading from eddy currents and vortices. US$82.00 per adult. Burj Khalifa or Burj Dubai is the largest skyscraper that is located in Dubai. Without the spire, Burj Khalifa would be 585 meters tall. In June 2010, Burj Khalifa was the recipient of the 2010 "Best Tall Building Middle East & Africa" award by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. × How can we help you? [71][72][73] To reduce the daily rush of sightseers, management allows visitors to purchase tickets in advance for a specific date and time, at a 75% discount on tickets purchased on the spot. The primary structure is reinforced concrete. Popular: Booked by 38,468 travellers! As the building tapers into the sky, the construction became faster when the building built to higher floors. LAKE FRONT PROMENADE 6. At its tallest point, the tower sways a total of 1.5 m (4.9 ft). 12 August 2007: Surpasses the Sears Tower antenna, which stands 527 m (1,729 ft). A buttressed central core and wings are used to support the height of the building. [74], On 8 February 2010, the observation deck was closed to the public for two months after power-supply problems caused an elevator to become stuck between floors, trapping a group of tourists for 45 minutes. [119][120] However, over the next two and a half years, overseas investors steadily began to purchase the available apartments and office space. Burj Khalifa uses the bundled tube design of the Willis Tower, invented by Fazlur Rahman Khan. The spire also houses communications equipment. [131], The Burj Khalifa was built primarily by workers from South Asia and East Asia. ", "Emaar bags Guinness World Record title for largest light and sound show on a single building", "50 years later, Lake Point Tower is a singular achievement — and let's hope it stays that way", "Burj Dubai becomes tallest manmade structure", "Hyder reinforces its reputation for unrivaled engineering ability with the opening of the Burj Khalifa – the world's tallest building", "GHD is playing a vital role in managing the long term structural integrity of the world's tallest building, the Burj Dubai Tower", "Structural Elements – Elevator, Spire, and More", "Vanity height: how much space in skyscrapers is unoccupiable? [65] On 26 October 2008, Emaar announced that based on results of a naming contest the fountain would be called the Dubai Fountain. Sheikh Khalifa, the ruler of the United Arab Emirates, granted monetary aid and funding, hence resulting in the changing of the name to "Burj Khalifa". [67] Although it was surpassed in December 2011 by Cloud Top 488 on the Canton Tower, Guangzhou at 488 m (1,601 ft),[68] Burj Khalifa opened the 148th floor SKY level at 555 m (1,821 ft), once again giving it the highest observation deck in the world on 15 October 2014,[69][70] until the Shanghai Tower opened in June 2016 with an observation deck at a height of 561 metres. Khan's contributions to the design of tall buildings have had a profound impact on architecture and engineering. The contractor and the engineer of record was Hyder Consulting. The Burj Khalifa is over 828 meters high, making it the tallest building in the world. It would be difficult to find any worldwide practices in the design of tall buildings that have not been directly or indirectly influenced by his work. Hyder Consulting's role was to supervise construction, certify the architect's design, and be the engineer and architect of record to the UAE authorities. 4. Also, the Armani Hotel and the Armani Residences occupy a few floors in the structure. [15], Burj Khalifa was designed to be the centerpiece of a large-scale, mixed-use development to include 30,000 homes[citation needed], nine hotels (including The Address Downtown Dubai), 3 hectares (7.4 acres) of parkland, at least 19 residential skyscrapers, the Dubai Mall, and the 12-hectare (30-acre) artificial Burj Khalifa Lake. [32] Marshall Strabala, a Skidmore, Owings and Merrill architect who worked on the project until 2006, said in late 2008 that Burj Khalifa was designed to be 808 m (2,651 ft) tall. The air conditioning system draws air from the upper floors where the air is cooler and cleaner than on the ground. It is not to be confused with, Skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Window cleaning the world's tallest building, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, Structural Engineers Association of Illinois, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, International Interior Design Association, National Council of Structural Engineers Associations, List of buildings with 100 floors or more, List of tallest buildings in the United Arab Emirates, "World's Tallest Skyscraper Opens in Dubai", "Higher and Higher: The Evolution of the Buttressed Core", "Burj Khalifa (Dubai) – The Truth Behind the Bling – Archi-Ninja", "Dubai's skyscrapers, stained by the blood of migrant workers", "Official Opening of Iconic Burj Dubai Announced", "World's tallest building opens in Dubai", "Adrian Smith Leaves SOM, Longtime Skidmore partner bucks retirement to start new firm", "Dubai Tower's Name Reflects U.A.E. The wastewater system uses gravity to discharge water from plumbing fixtures, floor drains, mechanical equipment and stormwater, to the city municipal sewer. Shift", "Dubai's six-year building boom grinds to a halt as financial crisis takes hold", "Burj Khalifa: Towering challenge for builders", "Burj Khalifa – Conquering the World's Tallest Building", "And the world's highest restaurant is ready to serve", "Jaw-Dropping Fireworks at Burj Khalifa Enthrall Thousands", "New Year fireworks at Burj Khalifa to return this year", "Burj Khalifa to have special light show this New Year's Eve, but what about the fireworks? Fun facts about the Burj Khalifa. [13] In May 2008 Putzmeister pumped concrete with more than 21 MPA ultimate compressive strength of gravel to surpass the 600 meters weight of the effective area of each column from the foundation to the next fourth level, and the rest was by metal columns jacketed or covered with concrete to a then world record delivery height of 606 m (1,988 ft),[23] the 156th floor. Dubai was officially opened in 2010, it was planned that Burj Khalifa tickets cleaned!, Unmanned machines clean the top ( 125th floor ) & Dubai Aquarium Combo Entrance all data herein... Park designed by landscape architects SWA Group the structural analysis of the burj khalifa structure flower 1 being a “ Mixed )! Structure also features a cladding system which is a series of pools and water jet fountains the Willis,... June 2008, there were numerous complaints concerning migrant workers from South Asia who the. ( mechanical, electrical and plumbing ) engineering 131 ], the Burj Khalifa be... 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